You’ve probably heard of Maxwell’s equations, which are a list of four equations that beautifully describe electricity and magnetism. Maxwell’s equations laid the groundwork for a majority of today’s technology that utilises electricity and magnetism, that is radios, wireless communication, motors, engines, generators just to name a few. Each of the four equations are great potential (hahah) blog posts, therefore in this post, I’d be focusing on this one:

Now, as a refresher what do the arrows, dot, B and upside down triangle even mean? B represents the magnetic field, the triangle and the dot together represents something known as…


Unfortunately, just like current flowing from the positive to negative direction, and the potential between the terminals of a battery being called electromotive “force”, we are stuck with the name “spin” due to historical reasons.

To understand ineptitude of some of the brightest minds that have graced this planet when it comes to naming things, we should understand what spin even is and how it was discovered.

Classical mechanics says that whenever a charged particle moves, it creates a magnetic field. When you make a charged particle move around in a loop, it creates a magnetic field which looks identical…


It has been said by many, that gravitational wave astronomy are like a new pair of eyes for humanity; that this technology would enable us to peer far deeper into the depths of the universe and uncover many mysteries. Thanks to LIGO and VIRGO, we’ve already made tons of predictions on previously untestable theories, and many more people are suggesting ways to utilise this new technology in order to detect the number of spatial dimensions that our universe has.

Why do people think that these extra dimensions exist you might ask? Well the thing is, up until now we’ve only…


Guess what, everything you know about tides (statistically speaking) is wrong. Tell me if this sounds familiar. The gravitational pull of the moon on the Earth is stronger on the side of the Earth on which it is present and weaker on the opposite side. This difference in gravitational attraction causes ocean water to bulge out at opposite ends of the Earth. The Earth rotates in this bulge of water creating the phenomenon of tides. Simple and beautiful. Well this explanation, as we’ll see, is both correct for some reasons, and incorrect for others. Don’t feel bad if you thought…


The standard model of particle physics describes the elementary building blocks of nature with scary accuracy (most of the time). At some level, it’s clearly “correct,” but at others, it’s totally off. There’s a reason why we didn’t just abandoned the standard when it makes a false prediction, it’s because some of the most well tested and confirmed predictions in all of physics have come from the standard model. On one hand it makes predictions that agree with experimental results to one part in a billion, and on the other hand, it refuses to cooperate with Einstein’s general theory of…


I thought that I’ll make a small post about what “things being a particle an a wave at the same time” actually means so that the two people who actually do read my blog don’t get confused in the future.

When someone is trying to convey how quirky quantum mechanics is, they tend to bring up the dual nature of matter and radiation, and while it’s cool to think of things as both particles and waves, it kind of paints a false picture. You see, things are not both waves and particles, it would be more appropriate to think of…


Have you ever wondered what makes a study scientific? Well so did Karl Popper, undoubtedly one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century. If you’ve done even an ounce of philosophy, then you would know how difficult it is to not disagree with someone else. Popper’s ideas, however, seem so basic, so indisputable, that they have become one of those few rare gems in philosophy that almost no one disagrees with.

Many of the cornerstones of modern science were produced in the nineteenth century: relativity, psychoanalysis and quantum mechanics, just to name a few. Karl Popper observed the intellectual…


Science knows of two processes as of today. These are random processes and deterministic (but not really) processes. Mixing these together we get probabilistic processes.

A neural network which has learnt to distinguish cats from dogs after considering different things (like droopy ears, the shape of the nose, the presence of whiskers etc.) only gives answers in probabilities. Humans, animals and other organisms are no different. We take in data through our senses and shove them into a calculator which is being calibrated and readjusted to this very day: our entire body. Will I be late to work if I…


Before saying anything, let me just say, good choice!

In this day and age people really don’t have an excuse for not learning what they are passionate about. With access to the internet being more common than access to sanitation, I think we all should have some self respect and not mindlessly consume content that the algorithm bestows upon us, but instead seek out material that genuinely interests us. I will be going over how you can start learning physics here, but you can teach yourself anything! Literally, the sky is the limit. …


Imagine a disembodied brain floating in outer space, simulating reality as we know it. Its memories of its entire life and loved ones originating from sheer randomness, by a coincidental arrangement of particles. Sounds crazy? Let me try and convince you why this might be the story of your life (statistically speaking).

But before that, let’s talk about Boltzmann. Ludwig Boltzmann revolutionised physics with many groundbreaking ideas, his most excellent gift to science being the Kinetic Theory of Gases. Boltzmann showed that thinking of gasses as amalgamations of particles in constant random motion could explain the three laws of Thermodynamics…

Shantanu Misra

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